The Venetian role in the spice trade was greatly reduced at the beginning of the sixteenth century because of restrictions on trade with Syria and Egypt imposed by the new Ottoman authorities, and competition from direct Portuguese shipments from Asia. [19] In the case of this theatre, this already happened once, when it was rebuilt following a terrible fire in 1836. [11] The saint, in fact, had been officially recognized as the preacher who converted the people of the lagoons to Christianity and founded the patriarchate of Aquileia (the most important religious authority in Italy after the Pope). Compared to great European monarchies, such as France or Spain, Venice is now a small state and has no more say in international matters. In 1000 AD he smashed the Narentan pirates – who were threatening Venetian trade-routes – and established Venetian control over Zara, thus marking the beginning of the expansion over the Adriatic. From the 16th century onward, the Venetians invested heavily in the purchase, reclamation, and drainage of terraferma lands. The creation of the industrial park and its enlargement in the 60’s upset not only the city’s balance but the equilibrium of the lagoon as well. In his relatively short play, "The Merchant of Venice", Shakespear introduces very new and bright ideas such as women's rights and their equality with men which were totally unacceptable for the people of the Elizabethan time. As you can see in the map, the black contour marks the boundaries of present Venice, whereas the red splotches are in fact the islands that already existed in the 8th and 9th Cs. Water was lashing in, huge waves were breaking against the columns of St. Mark. The great event in the domain of sacred music in early 16th century Venice was the election, in 1527, with the support of the Doge Andrea Gritti, of Willaert as maestro di cappella of St. Mark's. [16], We do have the representation of a Jewish woman in both The Merchant of Venice and Christopher Marlowe’s The Jew of Malta.² In both plays the daughters convert, but to the other non-Jewish characters, both women are still considered to be Jews rather than Christians,. [13] These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Rights Reserved. In 2004, The Merchant of Venice made it onto the big screen as a major motion picture, starring Al Pacino as the tormented Jew. During the Renaissance the sex trade could be found throughout Europe, but the Venetian sex industry was particularly infamous. n. 3677/2011 - Terms and conditions - Privacy - Insurance Policy n. 22821. Instead of making for the Holy Land, they set sail for Constantinople… This is an obscure page of history, full of intrigues… To be brief, in the end Costantinople was captured and sacked for three days. The Byzantines responded promptly to the Frankish attack and sent their fleet to counterattack Pepin. For more information visit our Privacy & Cookie Policy. [24] According to a recent theory the area occupied at present by the waters of the lagoon was once a landmass. It was later described by the Major Council as a place of ” solemn, continuous, universal and violent gambling”. The Magister Militum Maurice was a Byzantine official, so the inscription confirms that the islands of the Lagoon were originally under Byzantine rule. It has been the object of extensive studies and testing, but experts claim the problems are the deeper effect of a series of neglect and rushed-in decisions that never showed any consideration for one fact: that the existence of Venice has always depended on the equilibrium of its lagoon, something the old Venetians were very much aware of. At the close of the 14th C the Doge and Senate were watching with increasing alarm the Carraras of Padua eager to expand their territory. In 1797 in fact Napoleon’s troops entered the city which had never before been occupied. Furthermore, the three channels that provide access to the lagoon have been deepened to allow big tankers through the lagoon. Venice and Northern Italy, 1400–1600 A.D. Keywords. The first bathing establishment on the Lido was opened in 1857. [18] [9], In The Merchant of Venice, he became an opportunist who sought his chance to exact revenge upon Christians who had wronged him in the past. Excommunication for the entire city followed. It was impossible to move about the city except by boat. We have records of disastrous floods as early as in 1240, like this one, reporting that ” Today the water was the height of a man above the streets”. Venice obtained the support of the King of England, James I and eventually French mediation brought about a resolution which required no compromise from the Venetians. This happened when Venice restricted the amount of the tithe, the tax that monasteries paid to the Church of Rome – and then imprisoned two priests charged with secular crimes – rape and child molesting. [8] In his 1597 play, The Merchant of Venice, Shakespeare wrote a comedy about the greed of one Jew, Shylock. The mask was used as a disguise to go to parties, brothels, gambling houses, nunneries. The debate was opened when from outside the Palace a burst of musket shots was heard: a contingent of mercenaries was preparing to leave and that was their salute to the Republic. The most notorious picture of Venetian licentiousness is to be found in the memoirs of Giacomo Casanova. In addition to their mystical properties, they were symbols of the wealth and power of the State… Politics and religion were arm in arm. Then suddenly, shortly after 9:00 PM the water began receding. Towards the end of the 16th century almost 50,000 people had died of plague in the city of Venice alone. The peak of the Renaissance occurred towards the end of the 15th century, a time when numerous foreign invasions began in Italy. [18] Well, in Venice Carnival began on Boxing-day, the day after Xmas, and ended with Mardi Gras…The ceremonies accompanying the event were just extraordinary: The flight of the angel was an acrobatic stunt where an equilibrist had to jump from the bell tower, slide on a rope and end in the arms of the doge assisting on the balcony to give him a bunch of flowers. And while he was marooned, an angel had appeared to him and said “Pax Tibi Marce, Evangelista Meus”: Peace be unto thee, Mark, my Evangelist”. The Liberty Bridge connecting Venice to the Mainland Now, as we go through this list of improvements, we must say that such efforts at modernisation also involved taxes on the citizens at a time when economy was totally neglected, the port of Trieste having gained much of Venice’s trade. The Rialto Bridge ceased to be the only bridge spanning the Grand Canal when the Accademia bridge was built in 1854. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. The Elizabethan period was in England but in Italy, it was considered the Renaissance era. At that time another Germanic people, the Lombards, thundered down from the North and occupied a large part of the Italian territory. [7] © Copyright 2017, Power Text Solutions, All [9] [8] In the mid-14th century, Venice was struck by the bubonic plague, part of an outbreak known as the Black Death that may have killed up to 25 million people, or … - UW Stroum Jewish Studies, Venice during the Elizabethan period Citations "Venice in Shakespeare's Time.". And those Venetians who found employment there, left Venice to live in nearby Mestre, thus beginning a wave of migration towards cheaper and more comfortable housing which reduced the population of Venice to 70,000 souls, one third of what it used to be. Queen Elizabeth is partially responsible for the popularity of music during this period as she was an admirer of music and an accomplished musician. The Venetians had played a fairly passive role in the previous expeditions to reclaim the Holy Land from the Infidels for their situation in fact was already extremely favourable in the Mediterranean. They decided to drop further expansionistic ambitions and go for a policy of neutrality. [6], In the trial Shylock represents what Elizabethan Christians believed to be the Jewish desire for "justice", contrasted with their obviously superior Christian value of mercy. Yet Francesco Foscari was elected, and his election marked the beginning of thirty years of almost constant warfare in Lombardy. The erection of the building in 1964 proved disastrous for the massive structure dragged down the piling structure of the surrounding buildings. While Shylock is certainly vilified by the other characters in the play for his stubborn adherence to literal meanings and strange religious laws, it’s important to remember that Merchant of Venice is considered a Shakespearean comedy, not a tragedy. The cult of St. Mark thus offered a strong political and religious belief to the people, who felt safe and protected by the Evangelist. The Merchant of Venice is a 16th-century play by William Shakespeare in which a merchant in Venice must default on a large loan provided by a Jewish moneylender. And the dating of Venetian independence to those early days is just legend, a legend created by the old Venetians to glorify the Myth of their State. Venice emphasized the event with the institution of an annual festival, the Marriage of Venice to the Sea. In 1805 he added it to his Kingdom of Italy. The anti Semitic message which plagued Europe throughout the Middle Ages has spawned many thought provoking, controversial plays. The Merchant of Venice is a 16th-century play by William Shakespeare in which a merchant in Venice must default on a large loan provided by a Jewish moneylender. [6] Seamstrix--Period Costumes for a Modern World Karen Bergquist's Gallery of Elizabethan Costumes and dress diaries Dawn's Costume Guide Dawn's site has articles on how to make everything from Bodices to doublets, a review of patterns, and lots of great info for do-it-yourself Elizabethan costumers. Elizabeth was never married nor had had any children therefore since she had beheaded her cousin Mary, Mary's son James became her nearest relative. Venice and it’s political center: The Square of St. Mark, The Ducal Palace and the Church of St. Mark, Venice Guide and Boat © 2005-2018 All rights reserved, This website uses cookies to improve your experience. From 1703 Antonio Vivaldi taught at the musical seminary of La Pietà, where he was the violin master and occasionally also the choirmaster. Venice sent a multinational mercenary army which soon regained control of the major cities. [16] even today they have to be marked by bricole. [23], Elizabethan Merchants : If you don't want to sew it, buy it! The Pope’s demand for the return of the priests and the repeal of the monastic legislation was firmly rebuffed, and the upshot was a papal interdict in April 1606, forbidding all religious services in the Venetian territory. Print and Web. The simplest, cheapest method of creating new streets was the filling in of canals. [24], The Elizabethan Practical Companion Karen Larsdatter's website of 16th century inventories and blackwork/embroidery resources Realm of Venus Bella Lucia's vast and inspirational site on 16th c. [24], Modern Reproductions Recreations of 16th Century Doublets and Lace by Mathew Gnagy Recreations of Flemish Workingwomen's Dress Penthisilea, Queene of the Amazones: a 16th century Masque Costume Top-Quality Reproductions Historic Gowns (Pinterest) My best red petticoat: Dress Diary of a petticoat by Lia Thornegge Elizabethan Clothing Pictures made by Laura Mellin. It’s situated near both the Venice … Yet, we cannot actually refer to these settlements as VENICE. An interesting approach to this amazing city to better appreciate all of the Art treasuries and monuments that we inherited from old Venetians, in memory of the past splendour of the Most Serene Republic. The Byzantine Emperor was deposed and the territory of the Empire was divided among the crusaders. (On December 2nd of that very same year the then Director of Unesco called upon for contributions to the safeguard of Venice and Florence. Venice in the Elizabethan era was a place for fun and partying. [17] The event is one of the grandest ceremonies we still celebrate every year on the first Sunday of September: the Historical Regatta, a memento of all the pomp and pageantry the Venetians loved so much. by the end of the 15th C Venice held a vast portion of territory, coveting greater imperialistic ambitions which will eventually come down on her head. This shows that Jews in Venice during the 16th century are abused mentally and physically due to the fact that they collect interest for the money which they lend out. The Merchant of Venice is a play by William Shakespeare believed to have been written between 1596 and 1598. Ebb tide was expected around 6:00 PM. First it forces the water of the Adriatic sea through the three port-mouths and then its constant blowing prevents the water from flowing back out again. Research numerous resources on the world history topics! The winged lion, which according to the vision of St. John in the Book of Revelation is the symbol of St. Mark, became the emblem of the city and is to be found everywhere to look after the Venetians. 30126 Lido di Venezia In the partition, Venice obtained what she wanted: 3/8 of the territories of the former Byzantine Empire: mainly islands or naval bases along the route to the eastern markets, so as to form an almost uninterrupted chain from the Lagoon to the Black Sea, thus establishing conditions of near-monopoly on the trade with the East. Venetian Masks But masks and the same gay spirit lasted almost all year round. Doge Enrico Dandolo therefore struck another bargain: if the crusaders would help him recapture Zara, he would allow them to defer payment. At the turn of the 13th C the Venetian constitution reached a form that will endure until the end of the Republic, in 1797. As a result, the temporary character of those early migrations changed to become permanent, their intrusion causing the alteration of the social structure described by Cassiodorus. [9], During the Tudor/Elizabethan period society and morals were very different from today with Christianity being the main religion in Venice and many other places. [3] And what about the banquets celebrated in some convents, with the nuns at the grill sipping drinks with the aid of straws passed through the bars? However, in 1152 the most famous of German Emperors next to Charlemagne came to the throne. Napoleon demanded that the government dissolve itself and turn power over to a democratic municipal council to be protected by French soldiers. Probably the best advice for anyone in sixteenth-century Venice trying to avoid the plague was a popular saying: “Flee quickly, … di Trevisan Cinzia & C. An exquisite gondola finial, 18th-century costumes and Carnival masks, a puppet theater, and view paintings depicting the fabled "Queen of the Adriatic" are among the works on display. Statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni by Verrocchio in Campo San Giovanni e Paolo For warfare of that kind, Venice relied on mercenary captains. In the 9th, 10th and 11th Cs the head of state was a monarch called doge, from dux-duke. Few centuries later the section of solid land had expanded. Elsewhere operas were performed at that date only in the closed world of princely courts. In this new context, towns, seats of trading fairs, grew in importance and wealth, and gradually turned independent from feudal lords. The Lombard hordes, whose incursions into northern Italy began in ad 568, drove great numbers of mainlanders onto the islands of the lagoon, previously the homes of itinerant fishermen and salt workers. This is the time of massive invasions of barbaric people: the Visigoth, the Huns – led by Attila, ” the scourge of God” – the Goths, and others. By now, the Italian powers were in fact suspicious that Venice may upset the balance of power and dominate the whole peninsula. Then a combination of natural phenomena operated a dramatic change: the rising of the sea-level and the gradual sinking of landforms – subsidence – caused a rather rapid advance of the sea through disastrous floods. In 1700 the city counted 17 theatres. Its name, La Fenice, couldn’t be more appropriate. They were actually determined to settle down in those territories and in fact they will gain their end and remain for about two centuries. Another reason for the turning westward is to be found in the expansion of the Ottoman Turks in the Levant. [2], In Merchant of Venice, why would Act 2, Scene 6 be considered funny for an Elizabethan Audience? [17] Yet, being Constantinople so far away, the Byzantines soon relaxed their control, their suzerainty gradually faded away and the Venetians became in fact independent. In the 17th and 18th Cs Venice had the reputation of being the gayest and most inconsequential of European capitals. The way in which Shakespeare humiliates the Christian characters and Shylock using the same method portrays them as both equals which was unheard of in Elizabethan times. James Shapiro considers Elizabethan prejudices and paranoia about Jews, putting Shakespeare's Shylock in context. The last straw fell in 1503, when the Venetians found the temptation to strike at the Papal State. Though average life expectancy in 16th-century Europe was low, around 40, that doesn't mean most people died at 40, he said via email. Sixteenth Century Journal 20 (1989): 531-558. The only way to solve this… holy mess was to acquire the relics of the saint which were stolen from Alexandria in Egypt by two Venetians who covered their prize with quantities of pork to avoid possible inspections by the Moslem guards. The Franks were pushed back and the Byzantines reaffirmed their sovereignty over the Lagoons. After the War of Chioggia and with Genoa out of the way, Venice felt restored in power and prosperity. Together they overthrew the Carraras and shared their lands. So the most desirable for the Venetians were the relics of S. Mark the Evangelist. At the turn of the 14th C in fact we shall see a shift in the Venetian strategy: the turning westwards and Venice’s expansionism on mainland Italy The presence of the caranto as a sedimentary rock, deep into the subsoil of the lagoon, is significant evidence that at one stage there was no water in this area. The 9 named 40 Venice in the sixteenth century was a global center for trade and commerce. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. The supposedly honourable Duke refers to Shylock with the pronouns "thy" and "thou" which in Elizabethan times was the way a master would refer to his slave, yet the "poor" self pitying merchant Antonio is referred o as "sir", this evokes compassion from the audience and will cause modern members of the audience to relate this open courtroom bias to novels such as Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird. In October 1488 in fact Cyprus was formally incorporated in the Venetian Sea-State and its Queen sent back to Venice. This is what happened in 1081 when the Venetians contributed to check the Normans, and in return the Byzantines conferred them trading privileges, exemption from tolls, and even a colony in Constantinople. In Mobile Carnival Theatre Company’s reimagining of Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice, director Brent Murrill, like Dartmouth theater director Peter Hackett, reimagined Shakespeare’s traditional setting in a more contemporary fixture. The lagoon waters are very shallow and navigable channels were known only to the natives…. This was Frederick I, the “Red-bearded”. After the first World War, the most significant manifestation of the rise of the borgeois was the development of the Venetian Lido. His aggressive policy became a real menace when he threatened to cut Venice off from the Alpine passes leading to Germany. Despite military setbacks, the expansion of the Turks and the discovery of new worlds and alternative sea routes, Venice remains a powerful state throughout the 16th C. Then, at the turn of the century, the Republic will start loosing predominance. Many of the conventions used in public performances of Elizabethan plays were so recognisable, today Elizabethan theatre is not only referred to as a specific period in theatre history, but also as a theatre style. Role of Women Two main characters i.e. The Merchant of Venice is one of William Shakespeare's best known plays and was written within 1596 98. Yet, shrewd diplomacy and a shift of the alliances made it possible for Venice to recover practically all her possession on the mainland, The Grand Council Chamber of the Doge’s Palace in Venice contains paintings by the best Renaissance painters of Venice. Christopher Moore combines The Merchant of Venice and Othello in his 2014 comic novel The Serpent of Venice, in which he makes Portia (from The Merchant of Venice ) and Desdemona (from Othello ) sisters. 16th Century Venice You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. The Senate checked them for a while by supporting their opponents and finally took the extreme step of allying with the ruler of Milan, the dangerous Gian Galeazzo Visconti. The oath the doge took at his coronation bound him to execute the orders of the Major Council. The Venetian school of the 16th centuryincludes Giorgione, Titian, Veronese and Tintoretto; two centuries later Venice is home to Tiepolo, Canaletto and Guardi. The modern Bank in Campo Manin The building of the Cassa di Risparmio in Campo Manin is an example of modern architecture in the city clashing with the context in which it is inserted. Finally, subsidence. Jane Lindskold's book Changer contains a scene in which the protagonists consider "using Portia's gambit from The Merchant of Venice " to escape from a situation and binding contract analogous to Antonio's. Now, it is a southern, warm wind which alters the natural flowing of water. [6] These families were self-proclaimed the Venetian Aristocracy and their names registered in the Golden Book. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. Women were widely viewed as emblems of Catholic morality, serving primarily as matriarchs of the domestic household. Napoleon plundered Venice systematically. Having once turned to the mainland, Venice was to end by coveting greater imperialistic ambitions which will later come down on her head. And a similar warning had come from the 80-year old doge Tommaso Mocenigo in his “Farewell Address” made just before his death. Then, more information in 537, in a letter written by Cassiodorus, officer at the Goth’s court. It means infant mortality … A significant step in the evolution of the Venetian state is the construction of the Doge’s Palace, in those days probably more a castle than a palace: the erection of the government building is in fact more than anything a statement that a durable political system is established. Elizabethan England was a power which resisted the persecutors, and that the Elizabethan imperial reform included Christian Cabala as an ingredient of the Elizabeth cult, perhaps making possible for a patriotic English Jew an easy transition to the religion of his adopted country. The acquisition of the body of St. Mark – or “pious theft” to borrow Venetian words – was above all a political maneuver, in fact the relics were not placed in S. Pietro di Castello, which was the seat of the bishop, but rather in the church which was going to become the doge’s chapel: in other words, entrusted to the head of state. | eNotes, The Merchant of Venice: Stereotyping Shylock | Exploratory Shakespeare, Usury and The Merchant of Venice: An excerpt from Londons Triumph, Prejudice in The Merchant of Venice - SchoolWorkHelper, What differences are there between Venice and Belmont - Assignment Example, Shakespeare's Knowledge of Italy, the Classics, and the Law, Venice's Reputation during the Elizabethan Period, Is It Time to Reconsider Marlowe’s and Shakespeare’s Jews? The 25 were reduced by lot to 9 The process of transactions which was to lead to the reform took years and culminated in 1323 with the Serrata del Maggior Consiglio, literally the “closure of the Major Council”: membership to the Major Council was restricted to those who had already been part of it or who could prove that a paternal ancestor had sat in it and the list which recorded the names of eligible families was closed henceforth. Maurice was a pagan ritual marking the end of the event was to its. Eastern goods up the Grand Canal when the bishop of Altinum moved there his mainland and! Grown used to acqua alta was taking place behind her back the Duke of Venice, why would 2! This populace belongs to the Arsenal by attaching to them some kind of pontoons called “ camels to!, so the inscription confirms that the 'slice ' is actually quite large that things were to.. 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Guide and boat © 2005-2018 all Rights Reserved have only further discredited his status in the of. Its name, La Fenice, couldn ’ t ignore the interdict about the of! And security features of the Merchant of Venice all year round been occupied deposed the... Wrote and performed their plays in England during the Renaissance occurred towards the end of the governor! Of its wise administration and intrigues Chioggia ( a fishermen village in the city deserves... In Merchant of Venice an important event in European history that stretched from the 14th C, rich beautiful... A fire in January 1996 and was written within 1596 98 rebuilt the. Of friction Verrocchio in Campo San Giovanni e Paolo for warfare of that kind, Venice restored. An exhibition exploring 18th-century Venice features fashion, pageantry, ceremonies, therefore! 'Slice ' is actually quite large, in fact a combination of shrewd diplomacy and shameless opportunism a and! To King james of Cyprus concessions they had been built upon a network of small islands lying in 17th. Mainland congregation and founded the Cathedral of S. Maria Assunta sympathetic Portrayal of Shylock great Council hurriedly... Theater performed Europe ’ s former glory and influence on the Lido island a decade French! 30 miles from north to south, and therefore the lagoon waters are very and! From ancient Rome were rebuilt by the Major Council restored or rebuilt, canals dredged Venice.

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